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It was in June 2012 that UNFPA took the lead to organize Population Estimation Survey of Somalia (PESS) following a request from the United Nations Country Team (UNCT). The PESS was seen as a first important step and as an instrument to enhance statistical capaci-ties inside Somalia and provide soundly accurate, reliable, credible and accepted indicators for more specific follow-up surveys. It would be ideal to conduct a comprehensive popula-tion census for Somalia. Considering that a comprehensive census would require formida-ble institutional, financial and technical resources that are lacking as well as unreliable se-curity and stability in central and southern parts of Somalia. Hence, a population survey complemented by mapping.